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Developmental Biology
 
November 8 - 12
Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa

Cordinator: Domingos Henrique

Professors:
Inserm E343 - Université Montpellier II - Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier - France
Tel: (33) 467144802 / Fax: (33) 467143928
Inserm E343 - Université Montpellier II - Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier - France
Tel: (33) 467144802 / Fax: (33) 467143928
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência - Rua da Quinta Grande, 6 - 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal
Tel: 00 351 21 4464519 / Fax: 00 351 21 4407970
Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Instituto Histologia e Embriologia Av. Prof. Egas Moniz - 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
Tel/Fax 351.21.7999516/504
MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN - United Kingdom
Tel:: +44 (0) 20 8383 3768 / Fax: +44 (0) 20 8383 8306
Dept. Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut (CEXS), Universitat Pompeu-Fabra - 08003 Barcelona - Spain
 
Monday, 8 th November
Introduction to fly developmental genetics
  1. What is it that made the fly the key to understand development (mutational approach and genetic analysis)
  2. The Hox story: defining the LOF/GOF analysis
  3. The segmentation cascade: saturation mutagenesis and epistasis
Methods to study Drosophila Development
  1. Altering the genome of the organism (mutagenesis, insertions, flip etc...)
  2. Altering the genome of the single cell (clonal analysis)
  3. Discussion about the application of similar methods in other organism
Tuesday, 9 th November
 Cell Biology in Drosophila
  1. Germ cell specification and migration in Drosophila and beyond
  2. Dorsal Closure in Drosophila – from cell movement to wound healing
Model Systems
  1. Development of sensory organs in the fly (model)
  2. Development of sensory organs in the fish (model)
Seminar:
Evolution and development of the nervous system
Wednesday, 10 th November
 The Chick as a Model for embryonic development
  1.  Introduction
  2. Gastrulation: genesis of the paraxial mesoderm and tail bud formation
  3. Segmental patterning
  4. Neural Induction and Neurogenesis
  5. Neural Stem Cells: concepts and reality
Thursday, 11 th November
The mouse model: from gastrulation to Gene manipulation
  1. Introduction
  2. Mouse genetics and Transgenics. ES cells and gene manipulation
  3. New developments in gene manipulation in the mouse
  4. Gastrulation in mouse embryos. How to distinguish head from tail
  5. Cell movement during AP patterning in the mouse embryo
Friday, 12 th November
The vertebrate inner ear: from Development to Function
    1. Placodal Neurogenesis in vertebrates
    2. Compartments in the inner ear
Suggested Bibliography
  • “The Development of the Nervous System” (2000) Sanes, Reh and Harris; Academic Press.
  • “Principles of Development” 2 nd Edition ( 2002), Lewis Wolpert; Oxford University Press
  • “Developmental Biology”, 7 th Editio (2003), Scott Gilbert; Sinauer Associates
  • “Molecular Principles of Animal Development” (2002), A. Martinez-Arias; Oxford University Press
  • “Mouse Development” (2002), Patrick Tam, Janet Rossant; Academic Press.
Reading List
  • DAVIS G.K. and PATEL N.H. (1999). The origin and evolution of segmentation. Trends Cell Biol. 9:M68-72
  • DUBRULLE J., MCGREW M.J. and POURQUIE O. (2001). FGF signaling controls somite boundary position and regulates segmentation clock control of spatiotemporal Hox gene activation. Cell. 106:219-232
  • JIANG Y.J., AERNE B.L., SMITHERS L., HADDON C., ISH-HOROWICZ D. and LEWIS J. (2000). Notch signalling and the synchronization of the somite segmentation clock. Nature. 408:475-479
  • PALMEIRIM I., HENRIQUE D., ISH-HOROWICZ D. and POURQUIÉ O. (1997). Avian hairy gene expression identifies a molecular clock linked to vertebrate segmentation and somitogenesiss. Cell. 91:639-648
  • POURQUIE O. (2003). The segmentation clock: converting embryonic time into spatial pattern. Science. 301:328-330
  • Saga Y and Takeda H. The making of the somite: molecular events in vertebrate segmentation. Nat Rev Genet. 2001 Nov;2(11):835-45.
  • Jacinto A, Baum B., Actin in development. Mech Dev. 2003 Nov;120(11):1337-49. No abstract available.
  • Kaltschmidt JA, Lawrence N, Morel V, Balayo T, Fernandez BG, Pelissier A, Jacinto A, Martinez Arias A. Planar polarity and actin dynamics in the epidermis of Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Dec;4(12):937-44.
  • Wood W, Jacinto A, Grose R, Woolner S, Gale J, Wilson C, Martin P. Wound healing recapitulates morphogenesis in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Nov;4(11):907-12.
  • Jacinto A, Woolner S, Martin P. Dynamic analysis of dorsal closure in Drosophila: from genetics to cell biology. Dev Cell. 2002 Jul;3(1):9-19. Review.
  • Jacinto A, Wood W, Balayo T, Turmaine M, Martinez-Arias A, Martin P. Dynamic actin-based epithelial adhesion and cell matching during Drosophila dorsal closure. Curr Biol. 2000 Nov 16;10(22):1420-6.
  • Henrique,D., Hirsinger,E., Adam,J., LeRoux, I., Pourquie,O., Ish-Horowicz, D., Lewis, J.: "Maintenance of neuroepithelial progenitor cells by Delta-Notch signalling in the embryonic chick retina", Current Biology 13:661-670, 1997
  • Baron M. An overview of the Notch signalling pathway. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2003 Apr;14(2):113-9. Review.
  • Selkoe D, Kopan R. Notch and Presenilin: regulated intramembrane proteolysis links development and degeneration. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2003;26:565-97. Epub 2003 Apr 18. Review.
  • Le Borgne R, Schweisguth F. Notch signaling: endocytosis makes delta signal better. Curr Biol. 2003 Apr 1;13(7):R273-5. Review.
  • Henrique, D., Schweisguth, F. (2003): “Cell Polarity: the ups and downs of the Par6-aPKC complex”, Current Oppinion on Genetics & Development 13:341-350
Axis development
A nice and easy review to start with:
  • From fertilization to gastrulation: axis formation in the mouse embryo. Lu and Robertson (2001). Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 11: 384-392.
A good general uptodate review:
  • A gene network establishing polarity in the early mouse embryo. (2004) Ang SL, Constam DB. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 200415(5):555-61.
To make things more complicated, a more in depth study:
  • Emerging asymmetry and embryonic patterning in early mouse development. (2004) Rossant J, Tam PP. Dev Cell. 7(2):155-64
Neural Induction/Anterior Patterning
Describes the tissues that are important for neural induction in mouse:
  • Anterior patterning in mouse. (1998) Beddington and Robertson. Trends in Genetics 14(7): 277-284.
An evolutionary view of the same problem:
  • Initial patterning of the central nervous system: How many Organizers? (2001). Stern C. Nature Reviews Neuriscience 2: 92-98
Neural induction from a molecular (and complex!) perspective
  • Neural induction: toward a unifying mechanism. (2001) Wilson SI and Edlund T; Nat Neurosci;4 Suppl:1161-8.
Gastrulation
An overview of gastrulation in mouse:
  • Mouse gastrulation: the formation of the mammalian body plan. Tam and Behringer (1997). Mechanisms of Development 68: 3-25
Cell Movements
A general perspective on cell movements, very basic though.
  • Cell movements during vertebrate development: integrated tissue behaviour versus individual cell migration. Locascio and Nieto (2001). Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 11(4): 464-469.
ES cell technology
Describes the use of chimeras as a tool to study early mouse development.:
  • Mouse embryonic chimeras: tools for studying mammalian development. Tam and Rossant (2003). Development 130: 6155-6163
An insight into the world of conditional mutagenesis:
  • Cre Recombinase: The universal Reagent for Genome Tailoring. Nagy (2000). Genesis 26: 99-109.
And a couple of research articles that could be done for Journal Club
  • Nodal antagonists regulate formation of the anteroposterior axis of the mouse embryo. (2004) Yamamoto M et al., Nature 428(6981):387-92
Nodal antagonists in the anterior visceral endoderm prevents the formation of multiple primitive streaks. Perea-Gomez et al., (2002). Developmental Cell 3: 745-756. Research article.

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